Clothing in the 14th century in sign of making- perfect of cut and slim figure

In the development of clothing the 14th century presented a period of rise of many kinds of dresses thereby it was coming to a magnifying the variability their forms only in the 15th century when many of them acquired extravagant forms. In the 14th century more heterogeneous male and female coats have arisen; the scarves with women (till now chastely covering up the head, neck and nape) were getting more cunning shapes. Female bonnet-like high headgears have appeared and the hats of diverse shapes did so likewise with men. Since the half of the 14th century a change came about in the male fashion: the clothes were distinctively shortened and more types of short skin-tight coats (ioppa, “kurtka”) had arisen. So the men were leaving their legs being visible; up to then they have been covered-up under some long dress clothes.

Into the Hungary also other habits from courtly society have penetrated also by means of a new dynasty on the Hungarian throne, of the dynasty of Anjous. The contacts with Bohemians have equally mediated the Luxembourg and French courtly etiquette. Also the form of clothes has changed under an influence of making-perfect of production within the guild organization. Close-fitting clothes constructed on the basis of geometry of the cut have started to be manufactured; not as till now by a form of the even cuts and extending wedges. The Europeans familiarized themselves by means of the trade but also via Crusades with luxury goods of the Orient; not excluding clothes and textiles. Women in Arabic countries have worn skin-tight clothes, the long ground-deep falling sleeves, high rigid hat headgears and these were getting as a new fashion also onto the European royal courts. In the 14th century the skin-tight female dresses/tunics indicating the curves of female body were worn. A guillotine neckline was even favourite which discovered the neck, nape, till shoulders. The sleeves of the frock (lady´s dress) have reached up to the ground and they were stretched-away beyond the figure. On the heads some higher headgears were started themselves to form; sooner still like scarves under which some high laid-under hairdos and bonnets could be. A scarf was yet laid onto them. Wealthy women and men have worn laminated completes; their upper part has been cut-out so to discover the bottom layer (from Fr. cotte and sucotte or from Lat. tunic and supertunic) . Protruding corners, spikes, bands which made optically the owner higher and they lent majesty him.

Many Hungarian noblemen took part in diverse journeys where they became acquainted with exotic products and they got acquainted the period taste (“sophistication”). Also silk fabrics have been such luxury goods. In the 14th century their price fell moderately because the production centres from Front Asia were extended into the Northern Italy (Lucca, Venice) and Spain where the Moors have formed them up and maintained politically dominating to the Pyrenean peninsula. The silk fabrics with woven-out figural patterns with gold and silver threads have presented some of the most valuable period commodities.

On the territory of Slovakia only barchets and bakachines from the most standard fabrics were manufactured in guild of barchetars. Also the wall paintings from the territory of Slovakia are documenting them as well as the findings of the bakachines alone. The cotton has delivered a higher price on the market to these about 45 – 50 cm wide fabrics which has been an exotic material in Europe. Also Armenian merchants from Asia were bringing it onto the territory of Slovakia. Similar utility textiles we can see also on the wall also table paintings in other countries. The liking of white fabrics with dyed woven-out patterns has penetrated into the whole Europe from Italy concretely from Umbria Perugia or Tuscan Arezza.

Granting of city privileges made the status of townspeople stronger from which already a strong social class was becoming. Organization of craft and trade has been dominant domains in the towns. The economic and political development of the towns brought also a cultural boom manifesting itself in building activity and in lifestyle of townsmen. Rebuilding and rise of new churches were bringing a development of Gothic art. The clothing of rich townsmen of German, Slovak and Hungarian origin has followed the trends in nobleman´s clothes. The towns have presented also centres of production and sale of such clothes. The guild craftsmen who have collected experience from the European towns within journeyman´s errands have been mediators of new cuts, production procedures and of decorations of clothes. Although the rich townsmen but also craftsmen in the towns have imitated the fashion trends in clothing they could not dress as the nobility. They imitated especially new cuts of clothes as materials, however, some extravagant details on the clothes like trails, tails (or corners) and long sleeves have not been worn by them also from that reason that such clothes has been impractical. Excepting that fact”lordly” ordinances did exist, in which it was appointed what is forbidden to wear to the townspeople. The aristocracy has strengthened itself privileged status in such way.

In the second half of the 14th century it came to a more distinctive change in male clothes. It passed trough from the long tunic clothes onto a combination of short close-fitting coat (ioppa, kurtna) and pantihose  up to the waist (caligae). On these clothes the rich men have worn yet effect monumental topcoats, reverendas/stragulas, being sewn-up of expensive fabrics, for winter quilted and bordered by furs. They could be girded with distinctive belt in the waist or be only freely flowing ones.

With a favour of skin-tight clothes with men also with women an attention began to be paid, and namely to buttons, thanks to which the tight clothes got onto the body and they were closed onto it. The richest people had themselves entire garnitures onto their clothes manufactured: onto front fastening and onto sleeves.