Between the Middle Ages and Modern Age

Despite the fact that in Italy the way of thinking was changing which has marked-down also the architecture, art as well the way of dressing; the humanism and Rennaissance were coming very gradually. In the first half of the 15th century the clothes of previous century persisted still; just in the courtly milieu they could have a more extravagant form. Especially the trails, shoes, hats and bonnets became the very objects of pompous representation and aesthetical whimsies. In milieu of aristocracy and nobility, which were coming into contact with the court, also more extravagant forms of clothes were incurring as we know them from courtly milieu of France, Italy or Bohemia.

Expansion of Osmanli textile and clothing culture by means of Venetian region but probably also the direct military invasion of Ottomans into the Europe were provocating also new trends in the clothing. Throughout the 15th century and in Hungary also 16th century a vogue of various headgears reminding some Oriental turbans and headscarves has being boomed.

Renaissance novelties were coming but in the second half of the 15th century and they coexisted still with the medieval clothing habits. A distinctive lacing on front part of the clothes but also on sleeves shows up gradually on the female clothes. In the 15th century also the way of constructing the dresses is gradually changing; they commence to be cut onto two parts, in particular, the upper part is formed by the cut– the bodice and separately the bottom part i.e. skirt and they are subsequently sewn-together into the whole of the dress. It makes it possible to manufacture a more close-fitting upper part of the dress and a more massive skirt. Fig. XX In Italy in the 15th century the production of soft cottons with the pile – of velours (of velvets ) made itself perfect in the contemporary sources form our territory being designated  as acsamites. They have been adorned particularly with floral motives of large-repeat compositions in particular with a motive of pomegranate or pine cone. At an official portrait of Sigmund Luxembourg, of Czech and Hungary King, of Roman Caeser we see that he has clothes of a late medieval type but it is sewn-up from already Rennaisance Italian fabric. He, as well as the crowned King of Lombardy, had possibilities to procure the famous velvets from Florence, Genoa or Venice.

From the 15th century we have the preserved more numerous written monuments bringing mentions also about contemporary clothes. They are documenting the fact that the clothes were inherited in the milieu of nobility on our territory. Namely the fabrics had the greatest value on the clothes, however, also embroidered clothes and clothing jewels have been appreciated. Also a clothing dictionary could be compiled on the basis of analyses of the written sources from the 15th century. With regard to the fact that especially the Latin language was the written language Latin names are prevailing; also the designations in language of the country from where they originate then Italian, German or French ones are occurring at the new types of clothes. The term tunic could designate various types of the clothes also outer dresses (marked as cotton or purple ones) but also bottom clothes (flax tunic). The outer dresses and also topcoats could be denominated as reverendas, stragulas (strangula). Mantles of pelerine type were steadily worn and they were probably called paenula, toga, palium, mantel; pellicium (fur pelerine). The greatcoat overcoats then with sleeves could be reverendas, long sleeves sheepskin coats , dolmans. Some camisia, camisa terms could designate bottom shirts, tunics. The belts with metal components were used to be designated as cingulas and textile bands as baltheum. The notion sotulares denominated the all-shoes and calceum the sandals. In the sources the word capution is used, maybe a cowl, in many a case it has been necessary to use almost two metres of cloth for its consumption so as it could concern also an arranged turban-like headgear (chaperon). The cap was designated as cappa. Shorter coats were designated as ioppa, bambusium. The headbands were an important object of inheriting and they were designated as crinale. The velvet (aksamite) being interlaced with gold threads is denominated already in written sources as gold brocade and with silver threads as silver brocade. It was used to be described at the descriptions of precious fabrics which pattern is situated on the cloth, and so we learn that they used the fabrics adorned with flowers and lions or with letters and trees. It could be a question of not the velvets/velours but also of napless fabrics lampases, samitumes/hexamitumes, taqueté. They were produced in China,  in Central Asia countries, Persia, in Middle East, in Byzantium but their knowledge came also into the Europe, and namely thanks to Arabs, into Italian Luccy or into Maori Spain.

Some testaments are bringing information about the thing that the stragula had a sleeve of another colour. The liking to use another colour or also fabrics within one clothes is connected with expanded culture of family colours which were used in the escutcheons but also on the clothes. The clothes were segmented not only on the cutting surfaces but also on the coloured ones. So that the clothes on the left side have been of another colour than on the right one; it has being used on the outerwear, on basic clothes: on dresses, trousers also on headgears. The owner of clothes was demonstrating fidelity to the family tradition also in such way.  

Production of clothes with complicated cut which are close-fitting onto the figure, rise of typologically heterogeneous clothing accessories, their mannered extravagant form, sophisticated fabrics, handbags on the waist and so like have being asked for an existence of specialized craftsmen who could manufacture their products with processional skilfulness in the spirit of new trends from abroad. Within the craftsmen who in the  15th century took part in production of textiles, clothes and clothing accessories we know those for production of textiles: weavers, fustian weavers (production of „bakachines”), abroad „samitiers” (production of silk fabrics, lampas, samitumes) and „veludiers” (production of hair fabrics, velvets/aksamites”), drapers „pozamentiers” (production of narrow laces, cords, buttons, fringes); „tailors” became differentiated in big cities to producers of hats, coats, trousers; bag- makers and glovers were processing leather; hatters did the same as for the felt and textiles; shoemakers did so with leather but also with the textile for shoes; embroiderers have decorated the clothes by various techniques of embroideries ; goldsmiths manufactured the jewels on clothes. These suppliers were presenting an important basis for the history of clothing not only from the viewpoint of production of aesthetical forms processed fully professionally in a craftsman-like way but they have played-up an important role in accepting and handing-over the novelties then of changes which took part in the development of clothing habits and changes of fashion. Excepting some written sources from the territory of Slovakia from the 14th and 15th centuries we know also the monuments of the creative arts but particularly of religious character. It concerns wall and table paintings as well as sculptor´s decoration in sacral architecture. Thereby they present a certain, namely restricted source for a study of clothing culture but despite this also a period clothing culture is reflected undoubtedly in them. The important thing is to read” the clothes, textiles and clothing accessories from the point of view of their symbolic meaning on them. From secular environment we know already illuminated picture chronicles for example the Vienna chronicle from the 14th century or Chronicle of John of Turiec from the 15th century.