Baroque architecture

The Renaissance style was still being used in Slovak art and architecture in the 17th century when the rest of Europe was already pursuing the Baroque style. The beginning of the Baroque period is only noticeable from the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century when the religious conflicts and anti-Habsburg uprisings of the Hungarian aristocracy were completely over. The Baroque style came to be of significant assistance to the re-Catholicisation efforts of the Catholic Church and came to be supported by the Habsburgs in Vienna. The 18th century was favourable for the origin of monumental constructions, including churches, monastery complexes, town palaces and country mansions. Some noteworthy visual art works were also created; this was a field dominated by Italian and Austrian artists. The greatest builders included the Jesuits, followed by the Piarists. Bratislava and Trnava served as the main art centres. While ecclesiastical and university buildings dominated in Trnava, Bratislava was attractive to the highest aristocracy members who built their palaces and residences in the town centre (Esterházy, Pálffy, Keglevich and Grassalkovich palaces). Enlightenment ideas were also reflected in the lifestyles of the aristocracy, who purposefully transformed their residences as well as the surrounding neighbourhoods. Block-type constructions were replaced by multi-wing buildings with monumental staircases, open to the exterior (Bernolákovo, Veľký Biel, Orlové, Veľké Leváre, Adamovské Kochanovce and Tomášikovo). Natural-landscape French and English parks came to form integral parts of the representative residences. Individual estates were connected by roads edged by alleys; and farm-type residences came to include ponds and game-parks. Slovakia changed into a culturally reconditioned country, the majority elements of which, however, did not survive socialist industrialisation and the collectivisation of agriculture.