Art Nouveau (secessional) fashion (half of nineties of 19th century – 1918)

Modern woman

Also trying for change in clothing has been part of fighting for woman´s emancipation which acquired concrete forms already from the eighties of 19th century in Europe. Women who became by their work independent from father, brother or husband contributed in greatest degree not only to emancipation of women but also to the change of clothes. Requirement of educated and independent women for fashion created pressure on its practicality, and namely not only at wearing it but also at maintenance. These women did not have developed a need to represent with their clothes their family line or husband. They represented their abilities. Although the time, when they become the equivalent female citizens will only yet come. Women with pleasure used masculine elements on their clothing: cravats, bow ties, men´s types of hats, distinctive buttons and pockets.  Or they adopted men´s types of cuts for jackets and coats (fig. 25).

Especially combinable clothing consisting of blouse and skirt or lady´s costume in composition: skirt, jacket and blouse became the most favourite type of clothing for working and studying women. They became gradually symbol of modernness and they were fond also by women of aristocratic or high bourgeoisie environment (fig. 26).

Influence of sports has been one of the pulses for change of woman´s clothing. Measuring of physical forces between women and men in sport arenas played important role in breaking of gender stereotypes. The sport offered utilization of leisure time and being supported yet by health science it became phenomenon of life style. International competitions, men´s and women´s disciplines watched by press remind already today´s times. Along ancient aristocratic likings in horse riding and in animal hunts also skating, skiing, cycling, swimming, rowing or tennis found pleasure among ladies. Even in higher social classes they became part of upbringing and good customs. And ladies who wanted to sport had to be adequately dressed (fig. 27 a, b).

Lady´s Art Nouveau (secesional) silhouettes. Lines X and S harnessed by corset

From the beginning of the nineties of the 19th century the silhouette of dresses was in form of sandglass. High-profile form of bustle was sneaked out. Close-fitting closed bodice with sleeves expanded in part of shoulders and long bell skirt had distinctly pointed-out on inspiration by Biedermeier. Attention was transferred from the skirt onto the bodice and sleeves voluminous in part of shoulders (fig. 28). The corset still constantly remained a basic element which formed woman´s body into required fashion line. It was firmly reinforced on the outer side sewn-on by laces; on the back it was contracted by long lacings. Long white undershirt of fine fabrics was dressed under corset. Featherlight fine bodice was dressed onto the corset. Yet long white panties, more underskirts and knee socks still especially in this shape belonged to underwear and they were fixed onto legs by suspender ribbon.

By the end of the nineties relatively plain and massively acting line of clothing became softer and wavy (fig. 29). Legendary s-shaped line was reached by drastic way. The corset, which formed it, has been very long and firm. It created unnaturally protuberant bosom it fitted closely hips which should be slim and it formed arched background. It has been such long that elastic rubber suspenders began to be fixed to it and they have been terminated by buckle by which the stockings were clipped.

S-shaped line was created also by the cut of bodice and skirt as well also by hidden aids: by corset and small pillow over the back. The bodice of dress and blouse had a lot of falling draping fabric put into folds in front part, pleats with falling applications of laces, ribbons and beads (fig. 30). The cut of skirt was bell-shaped with folds in back part of waist which has been emphasized also by underlaid small cushion on underskirt. Waist line was not flat but in the front it sunk into a spike and in the back moderately over the waist. At view from the side it created a diagonal what visually caused perception of protuberant back. Sleeves of this line were diminished they ceased to be massive in shoulder part but still have been ruffed in armhole thereby they create buftan in upper part. On all types of daily, also during the solemn activities given in the day, constantly a close-fitting reinforced high stand-up collar was worn (fig.31).

In this period also very big hats started to be worn of which brim often overhung the breadth of shoulders. Excepting classical modiste´s decorations not only decorative bird´s feathers, were placed in them (as also in past periods) but whole birds and  arrangements of fruit and flowers (fig. 32 a,b,c).

New Empire line of tube. Exemption from corset

The then prominent French designer and successful dictator of fashion Paul Poiret defeated corset who at principle changed the fashion line in 1906-1907. Undulating S-shaped curve has been replaced by narrow tube-shaped line with moderately raised even waist. Poiret utilized creatively great interest in Japan culture and he introduced cut of Japan kimono into the fashion which was ideal for dress without corset. Also by his merit clothes without high collars started to be preferred, after a long time with liberated necks (after almost thirty years) (fig. 32). With changes of lady´s clothing line also material, cut, colourfulness and quantity of underwear were varied. In wardrobes of ladies and misses appeared first attempts for bras.

Not only dresses coming from our museums but also from foreign ones document the fact that the dress were still worn up to beginning of the second decade which had combined the S-shaped line and tube-shaped one. For example they had already even waist and kimono cut of sleeves on upper bodice of dress under which the women got dressed yet lower bodice or blouse with high standing collar (fig. 33).

Lines of expanded skirts

Long narrow even skirt started to be sewn with highlighted side regions in femoral part in Paris salons around 1912. The skirts acquired egg-like shape (fig. 35). Under influence of new fine art influences in fashion coming from exotic Orient also colourfulness of clothes was varied; discreet fine colours as for example coral, pale violet one or colour shade of tea roses were replaced by distinctive and multicolour colour shades. Inspirations from Orient have influence also on shape of head coverage in way of turbans, flows and headbands with bird´s small feathers (fig. 36).

Outbreak of the Great War did not mean extinction of interest in fashion. In changes, which have been brought by subsequent years, new views on status of women were reflected. Also requirement of observation of hygiene and simpler care for clothing became the topical one. The Great War was a land war causing lack of textile raw materials. New substitute materials, as for example viscose silk, started to be therefore used. The fashion silhouette was changed also despite the Great War and namely in shape and length of skirt. After a longer time the bell-shaped and barrel-shaped skirts were favourite again but already in length only over ankles (fig. 37).

Fashion unavailable to all

Despite fact that by means of fashion it came to democratization of society in 19th century the fashion acted also as a factor of social discrimination hereafter. Fashion clothing has been available except for aristocracy only to bourgeoisie and intelligentsia. Townish physically working classes i.e. proletariat have been detached from this visual assimilation (this will be brought only by the second half of the 20th century). Observation of varying clothing silhouettes, wearing of fashion accessories and observing the system of clothing etiquette had created the similarity between aristocracy and townspeople. But differences demonstrating economical possibilities were manifested in quality of material, cuts, variety of clothing components, in quantity of clothes and accessories but also in total style. Difference between centre and periphery, distance from resources and shops took constantly part in their creating.

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Bustle fashion (seventies up to beginning of nineties of 19th century)

Last period of lower constructions

From 1868 in Paris fashion salons a new fashion arose by tiny change: volume of back part of skirt started to magnify over the part of lady´s back. The persisting line of subtle trunk contrasted still constantly with skirt. Shift of the volume into the back part was not sudden it linked up on silhouette of second rococo when at the end of the sixties of 19th century polonaise like an arranged overskirt appeared. The bustle, lower reinforcement had to be worn under it for the sake of desired effect. We know more shapes and materials from which it has been manufactured. Steel springs from which it was possible to produce it has been already result of industrial revolution. Small pillows of horse hairs or of wire mesh have been produced by craftsmen, In the European towns it was possible to purchase them in warehouses or specialized shops. The interested persons could order them through mail-order service from varied firms which promoted themselves in fashion journals. Choice of suitable bustle under clothes or under complete or for a walk in mountains or for ball had depended from position of female owner and of her financial possibilities but also from type of dress under which it was possible to put it on (fig. 22 a, b).

Silhouette of the bustle up to bizarrely accented the volume in upper part of skirt over the back. The notion bustle is connected etymologically with French word tournure with meaning of the looks, formability but also of posture and figure. In Bohemia this lower reinforcement had also denomination honzík. Pejorative name cul de Paris (Paris back) has been its contemporary colloquial designation. Except for the bustle, which represented a hidden aid at forming silhouette, the volume was styled also by other tailor´s procedures. Manufacturing of skirt part from two kinds of skirt has been one of them: of underskirt or basic skirt (but not petticoat) and of upper skirt in that period designated also as tunic. That had very complicated form. Its sophisticalness laid in the fact that thanks to complicated tailor´s procedures (ruffles, folds, pleats, tucks) it created effect of voluminous balloon or buftan This could be manufactured also by other procedure such way that it has been manufactured and arranged of coat-tails. The thing that manufacturing these ruffles on the skirt or jacket has been demanding tailor´s work it is proved also by fact that so-called “trussiraires”existed i.e. specialized female tailors (fig. 22c). More expensive clothes were decorated with laces, ribbons and particularly with appliqués of decorations combined with small pearls and black ornaments. They were still laboriously manually sewed.  

Hairstyles similarly as skirt acted casually being arranged; they were combed-out high upwards and completed with small hats – small caps. Also shoes on high heels aided to prolongation of figure. They were sewn of leather but also of silky fabrics; they were cross-laced usually in the front by help of small hooks or they were fastened by small buttons (fig. 23). More types of jackets close-fitting at the front, mostly reaching under waist or in the three-quarter length have been upper clothes in the rear often cut-through such way in order they can be worn on the bustle. They were sewed from woollen and silk fabrics, and the winter ones were lined-with. At modelling of jackets and longer coats for women it was begun to reach out inspiration from men´s coats. Also varied forms of pelerines have been constantly favourite (fig. 24 a, b).

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Fashion of second rococo (fifties and sixties of 19th century)

Fashion of crinolines

At the beginning of the fifties the skirt acquired up to exaggeratedly voluminous form. It formed the most distinctive part of lady´s silhouette. Its shape was determined by bottom ring skirt, crinoline (fig. 16). According to it also the name of this period crinoline became usual for this period. In 1856 lightweight steel rings were used for manufacturing of underskirt for the first time, thanks to which the crinoline gained a distinctive volume. In the fifties the crinoline had cupola-like form. From the sixties at the view from side it was changed and it acquired a triangular silhouette by distinctive prolongation backward (fig. 17). Mass factory production of crinolines made them accessible also to broad classes of population. On the territory of Slovakia it did not penetrate into folk clothing in the country; there it was worn only by intelligentsia: mesdames female pastors and the like. They were popular despite the fact that for their sewing-up it was used-up a lot of material and they hindered in current life fig. 18).

The clothes cut made complete and highlighted the silhouette of constantly favourite subtle trunk modelled by corset and crinoline. Contrary to the previous fashion the cut of sleeves was changed and they were spread-out towards the wrist bit by bit. In the fifties the visit jackets started to wear to the skirt. Initially they have been simple they reached up to waist or on hips they had narrow sleeves; in the front they were high closed and they were fastened with small hooks or buttons. Also in the front open jackets with white blouse or vestlet were worn. The sleeves used to be in funnel-shaped way enlarged (fig. 19).

In comparison with hairdressing in Biedermeier period the hairdos have been substantially simpler. The parting remained and the hairs from both temples were sunk onto shoulders in form of free wavy ringlets. In the day the hairs were interwoven into braids and in form of small wreaths they were wound-around head or they were embedded in nape. They were completed with simple smooth ribbons or flowers. Older women worn also in domestic environment bonnets furthermore they were rather smaller they covered the entire head and they were tied-together both under chin or they have been only freely put. They were sewn of batiste, laces or folded ribbons. The women of higher classes when they went out they put on them yet hats with open brim. The women and girls have used all clothing accessories known already in previous periods – textile pockets also leather handbags, knitted purses, embroidered handkerchiefs, fans and parasols, fine lace veils, scarves also leather or jersey gloves. Deeply cut-out ballerinas were worn already only in the evening otherwise shoes and the lady´s slippers got low heel.

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Fashion in period of Biedermeier (twenties and forties of 19th century)

Ideals and fashion

In the twenties up to the forties of the 19th century the romanticizing ideals were presented not only by means of literary and music works but they got also into the salon refined conversations. And some images about ideal of man´s and woman´s beauty were reflected also into the clothing. The morals were refined; especially the middle class, which was bearer of industrial and political progress, was civilized also thanks to these ideals. The men looked like over-refined courtiers and the women posed as fragile, melancholic ladies (fig. 9).

In forming the contemporary ideal of woman also the being gaining strength townsman´s class partook which preferred a prototype of woman like obliging wife, of careful lady of house and mother. Then that is not a mondaine noblewoman which feels in society in Vienna and Paris in her element. The cult of domestic private welfare was distinctively connected with townsman´s class. Modesty and shyness became woman´s virtues. Female members of the middle and higher town class were transformed into shop window of her husband. It belonged to the duties of wife to demonstrate husband´s working or financial successes by clothes and jewels. It can be seen on many period sources that the women of the middle class learned really to be ⹂well” dressed and some of them did not have sense of extent, balance of accessories or decentness. At any cost, they need to show the most as possible from that what they owned (fig. 10).

Resurrection of cliché about woman´s beauty – subtle trunk

Return of subtle trunk was reached again by corset and visual contrast with voluminous sleeves. A falling silhouette of shoulders being reached by various tailor´s procedures and accessories, which started to wear in the twenties, intensified an impression of “defenceless” lady´s shoulders. Ephemeralness of woman was underlined also by material of dress: light silks were preferred and for summer clothes also cotton. Favourite flowers of varied kinds and shapes in very varicoloured compositions, living or silky ones, on hats. dresses, behind waist and in hands filled up woman´s romantic ideal.

In period from the end of the twenties up to the end of the forties clothing silhouettes of ladies were changed three times (fig. 11 a, b, c). The sleeves passed through most distinctive changes on the lady´s clothes. In spite of their modifications the waist remained constantly subtle; in the twenties it has been moderately raised but it dropped gradually into natural waist. Robustness of sleeves was reached by more procedures. Padding the sleeves with cotton was the most current way and the cotton was inserted between upper silky fabric and lining. The volume was created also by use of big quantity of yardage. The material itself helped: especially fabrics, which alone maintained an inflated balloon-shaped form. Also whalebones, various reinforcements and more padding were used which best held the shape of opulent sleeves.

Several underskirts created robust silhouette. In the forties when the skirt was started distinctively to enhance one of the underskirts was stitched-down with horse hairs. Also the known term for designation of voluminous petticoat – crinoline comes from here (from Fr. crin – horse hairs). In the twenties and thirties was unprecedentlessly shortened also the skirt length. Till then the skirts ground-long have been worn by the female aristocrats; this has been their privilege of estates unlike to townswomen who had skirts ankle-deep roughly.

The women in the Biedermeier period have worn hats and bonnets with liking. These ones reached large-dimension shapes and sometimes it could be hardly distinguish whether it concerns bonnet or hat. For the sake of fixation they were tied-up by ribbons underneath chin. The bonnets have been worn by married women of all social classes but not by single girls and misses. In this period the hats were worn with distinctively opened brim which has effectively framed the face of female bearer. They were manufactured of textiles and they used to be decorated similarly like bonnets with flowers, ribbons and laces. Historicizing influences were manifested at more mondaine ladies they were fond of turban-like covers of head. Also top hats being taken-over from man´s wardrobe were popular (fig. 12 a, b, c, d).

Townsman became nobleman, nobleman became citizen

Men´s clothing from the Biedermeier period continued in gradual making itself civil. The men have worn not already decorative being woven-out fabrics and embroideries; only if on the waistcoats or ties or on the morning domestic overcoats. They ceased to wear wigs, shorts with coloured silky knee socks and they forgot about laces and ribbons. Well-fallen close-fitting suit suitably chosen according to the daily and social occasion became a symbol of men´s chicness. The emphasis was laid on carefully being chosen accessories to the suit: snow-white shirts with cuffs and high collar, complicatedly tied-up cravat, cuff buttons and watches on chain.      The silhouette of men´s clothing despite incoming rationalization of men´s clothes acts still very in a womanly manner because it has been also formed into the letter X: suit coats and also topcoat had in upper part too much voluminous sleeves; wasp trunk was an ideal also for men and they were reaching it thanks to corsets. Bottom part of coats was spread into voluminous “skirt” shapes. Thereto all yet curled hairs on the whole head belonged. Ideal dandy still reminded a fine courtier (fig. 13).

The tailcoat was worn like suit coat which has been not only an evening suit but also daily one in this period. For daily occasions it was worn in multicoloured woollen fabrics and with trousers of paler colour. The tailcoat in dark plain-coloured tones presented the only admissible evening clothing. The redingote was a coat of daily type. For daily occasions also a shorter coat reaching roughly thigh-deep was worn. Difference between “men´s” fashion coat and a coat of working man was in length and the elegant fashion coats of this period have been still fitted-up to trunk and waist. Physically working social class and poorer inhabitants of towns worn coats similar to today´s men´s jacket (it was short only rump-deep and free in waist) (fig. 14).

The trousers were worn long and the daily trousers used to be broader than the evening ones. The hat was inevitability. The man without hat was not a gentleman. The top hat — hardened high hat – was worm. Also the top hat with spring has been already known – the opera hat which enabled the flatways folded-up top hat to blow out into high shape. The top hat was used day and night. More informal hats, which could be worn to clothes designated into the nature, have been soft and felted.  They were fond  by members of progressively holding-the- opinion intelligentsia and artists.

The men´s shoes reminded still subtle lady´s small light shoes. Subtle foot has been a standard not only for women but also for men. Man´s “pumps” had pointed shape and low heel. The fashionably getting dressed nobles have worn topcoats of pelerine type as top clothing which had wide volume for covering-up the mighty silhouette o men´s shoulders and chest. Except for classical pelerines – burnouses – also coats were worn thanks to big collars – reminding the pelerine – carricks. The scarf and gloves had to be accessories of the top coat (fig.15).

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Classicism in fashion (the nineties of 18th century up to the second half of 19th century)

Far away from revolutionary force

From the seventies of the 18th century it came to slow changes also in views of clothing under influence of the Enlightenment. Comfortableness was becoming an important requirement laid on clothing. It was accepted not only in townish environment where it has been everyday necessity already for a long time but also at the sovereign courts.

Within the period etiquette the novelties as lady´s complete: skirt with jacket, chemise – free small shirt for leisure time activities; under clothes it was recommended to not bear bottom ring skirts and corsets. Rationalization influenced also man´s wardrobe (fig. 1). For informal activities it was promoted to wear not tight silky coat – justaucorps but woollen coats like tailcoat and redingot (originally English riding coats). Voluminous three-corner hats were replacing with high cylinder hats. This new fashion did function at the sovereign courts parallely with still being subsiding rococo monumental dresses. Clothing trends penetrated into wardrobe suitable for nonofficial and leisure time social occasions at first. For courtly official activities the rococo fashion was constantly worn thus woman´s clothes à la française and man´s combination justaucorps, veste and culotte.

In 1789 radical political events brought change of fashion especially in France but the rest parts of Europe still remained in courtly regulations which have been reserved to radical changes. Despite this already portrait creation of the end of 18th century and at the beginning of the 19th one brings examples of progressive clothing also in environment of the Hungarian nobility (fig. 2).

In the lady´s wardrobe of nobility French chemises started to wear already not only like a dress suitable for leisure time activities but also for social occasions. They have been sewed of light pale materials, cut under breast, with accessories and hairdos from cut hairs and have varied the noblewomen in spirit of period classicistic ideals (fig. 3). In man´s wardrobe of nobility is varied collar both on the justaucorpseand on tailcoat and redingote which is up to extremely raised into face which is overlapped yet by corners of collar. Around the neck the more times wound-round tie is and only small part of man´s face is visible also for the sake of fashion hairstyles coiffured into the face and of big sideburns (fig. 4).

After 1805 the lady´s silhouette was changed. Self-establishing of Napoleon Bonaparte for emperor brought the return of lustre of aristocratic court. At once at the beginning of empire the Lyon silk manufactures got orders manufactures got orders from Napoleon which traditionally represented huge gains for France. The promotion of these silky fabrics did function as a support of production and sale directly at imperial court in Paris. Chemise sewn-up already not from light cotton fabrics but of silky ones so lost its flowing ability and it acquired certain rigidity in silhouette. It has been completed with various details like standing collar, balloon-shaped sleeves or upper tunic on skirt and it was getting into whole Europe as a pattern (fig. 5). Hairstyles had still hairs combed into cheek in ancient way and women had their hairs even for the first time in history of the European fashion cut short. It can´t be said, that this is vagary but also period portraits of Hungarian noblewomen bear witness thereto   (fig. 6).

Aesthetical criterion defeats political loyalty

In this case the fashion went against political loyalty. The French fashion has been worn by female representatives of all European courts for which Napoleon represented big political threat. Also at the Vienna congress (September 1814 – June 1815) where were newly organized frontiers of the states after Napoleon´s wars and where beside seriouss negotiations did run brisk social life, the French chemise was the main lady´s gown (fig. 7).

In townspeople´s environment of Hungary this type of fashion was not taken-up. It was especially for women very too impractical. They were fond of Hungarian clothing or yet of rococo cut of clothes (fig. 8).

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Fashion in Slovakia in century longer than 100 years (end of 18th century up to 1918)

Equality of rights in clothing got into political programme of French revolutionists and by a decree of Congress a democratic principle in clothing has been declared in 1973, and this one definitively confirmed the possibility to put on freely. Yes, also the way of clothing became self-contained provision connected with articulation of personal freedoms of the individual! Classicistic and empire style in clothing in France overstepped really social differences between nobility and rich townspeople. Neither the Restoration in France nor conserved monarchist systems could stop the force of coming-into-existence civic society which began to propagate itself through whole Europe.

Retarded after-effects

On the territory of Slovakia the building-up of civic society happened in unfavourable politic conditions. The townspeople were still small-numerous and economically weak social class in first half of 19st century. Despite fact that the state (Metternichian regime) had commanded the public life into all consequences, civic activities were bound to cultural happening in high degree. In premises of public reading rooms, spas ad town casinos emancipation process of middle class took place. Progressive ideas were bound also to way of life and identity with new opinions was demonstrated also by introduction of novelties in clothing. In the state whole of Austrian empire the clothing fashion even overtook the democratization political changes. As late as in 1948 the March laws contributed to funding the modern civic     society, however, there were social inequalities up to the end of monarchy in practice. In this still conservative scheme universalization of clothing fashion played an important role at democratization of society. However, practices of segregation also between aristocracy and rich townspeople persisted yet long in political practice. Process of social emancipation of townspeople and of its acceptation by nobility will go by in Europe entire 19th century. However, in culture of clothing it has been currently accepted already in the first half of 19th century that the types of clothing components, their names, colourfulness cut or accessories were worn by members of both social classes. In other words, also the man that still had not election right (e.g. a watchmaker in small town) could wear fashion clothing. And it is necessary to emphasize that it was without provoking the higher classes of society by such behaviour. The way how he put on became his civic right, personal choice dependent already from only property possibilities.

To the fact in order the different social classes began voluntarily to dress in spirit of equal aesthetic standards it was necessary they began to accept and prefer some aesthetic ideal over other standard (at aristocracy and nobility for example over hierarchy of estates or over tradition of estates).  In the first half of 19th century the values were gradually born with commencement of modern period and they stood high in hierarchy. In the modern society the category of novelties acquired unprecedented value. Patent offices have been overburdened by new ideas in 19th century known as the century of discoveries and inventions. The industrial revolution was implemented by their introduction into practice. The meaning of novelty has acquired in broader perception of modern town society on great significance. The novelty is result of longing for change which becomes an important tool of development in industrial society of 19th century. Legitimacy of the furthermore unparalleled things mastered also behaviour of people in connection with clothing. The following of novelty was becoming manifestation of modernness whether for mobility or for townspeople. From the first half of 19th century there is no more usual in clothing practice for the nobility to restrict the townspeople in their way of clothing. Noblemen or noblewomen have put on a fashion novelty although its form has been connected with townsman´s way of life or clothing. New clothing trend was sign of modernness and social symbol of fact that the bearer is in the middle of things and he is well-informed and on pulse of the day, so to speak.

Various inventions and industrialization of textile production were mechanisms which enabled social mimicry. New production procedures emulated hand-made textile techniques. In textile development it can be spoken thanks to the industrial reproduction about period of first imitations. Jacquard loom represented a significant discovery which simplified production of luxurious figured clothes (trouser stripes, damasks, brocades and so on). The inventions connected with machine production of tulle, laces and embroidery are binding together with England. Availability of these products – not only the price availability but also the physical one – has leads to flexibility of clothing novelties. We connect a change in clothing stereotypes in connection with materials also with cotton, which was gradually varied from luxurious material to more available one from the 18th century, but it has been still expensive material. Just the 19th century uses to be designated also as century of cotton. Its spreading and popularity have been supported also by physical properties of cotton: easier washability, warming ability, tensile strength, abrasion resistance, ability to absorb humidity, tactile. Propagation of new technologies in the textile production stood also at birth of new centres of textile industry. That was not only a couple of French, English and Italian regions with ancient tradition of manufacturing the fabrics but founding of new manufactures and workshops dispersed this production and thereby it contributed also to availability of fabrics.

In unifying the clothing style between aristocracy and townspeople also period journals and newspapers took part. They became gradually inseparable part of life also of town man. By spreading the fashion novelties they began to create patterns in both different social environments which became binding standard of behaviour. The journals brought not only art forms of clothing but they informed also about type of clothing; they determined its social occasion respectively. At some fashion small pictures also an information was situated where (address) and with who (firm´s name, tailor´s name and name of modiste) can be bought displayed models. This form of advertisement for individual producers of period fashion clothes will be still perfected during the course of 19th century through fashion journals towards informing about materials and decorations on clothing even also on cuts.

Also new types of shops, fashion houses arising in big European metropolis played an important role in spreading the fashion novelties: La belle jardinière (1824, Paris), David a Valentin Mannheimer (1837, Berlin), Rudolf Hertzog (1839, Berlin). They associated dealers and producers of fashion goods under the same roof. Customers of these shops came exclusively from lower middle class; the aristocracy and bourgeoisie had their clothes manufactured, and namely only made-to-measure. Price accessibility of products and the fact that the clothing and accessories imitating quality fashion dresses have been in offer they together made possible to townspeople to get dressed according to the trends.

The founder of department store La belle jardinière Pierre Parisot is deemed for pioneer of ready-to-wear clothing because he had the clothes made in advance and he was selling them: at the earliest working clothes later also clothes for townspeople. He was selling for cash he had fixed and clearly defined prices. This method was spread from him into other French but also European towns. In fashion journals also advices for cuts making will be found gradually. Also offering letters of fabric manufactures contributed to the distribution of topical novelties in textile yardage; often with precisely intended purpose of usage of particular samples of fabrics.  Such offering letters have been distributed by Vienna firms, e.g. Mestrozi, Wiener and Söhne, J. Blümeland&Co.

Last but not least it is necessary to mention development in area of postal transport which caused scatter of fashion novelties into far-flung corners also of Hungary by rise of horse-drawn railway at the earliest and of the vapour one later. Offering catalogues of firms, fashion journals or cut supply (packages) were current goods which were got to proprietors and female owners.

Along the department stores also economic exhibitions played significant role in spreading the novelties (not only clothing novelties and textile ones) whether general world exhibitions or specialized international ones as well regional expositions which were domesticated in all European countries during the course of the first half of 19th century. In the course of several days they concentrated the producers, their products, information to them and they became extraordinary economic and social events about which it was written in period print. At the exhibitions also producers of clothing and textile, textile accessories (shoes, handbags, parasols and so on) took part. They were source of topical trends and knowledge on various technologies and production techniques they helped to initiate business and specialized connections as well to look for new markets and sales outlets but except for this they recapitulated not only but also prefigured the development trends. From the beginning they have been linked also with exhibitions of fine and applied arts thereby they had distinctive share in formation of general aesthetical good taste.

Historisms in clothing

Under influence of classicism nostalgic tendencies were manifested also in clothing from the seventies of 18th century which were causing that the highest social classes got dressed in spirit of past periods. A liking in antiquity was fully manifested in classicism; in period of romanticism medieval and renaissance influences dominated. During the second rococo the political but also aesthetical inspiration started in ancienrégime especially in 18th century. The fashion of bustle has been let to be inspired yet by rococo but also by baroque. In female wardrobe, however, the vogue of inspiration by ancient fashion up to Great War persisted.

Waves of historicizing influences were equally concerned women as well men up to the half of 19th century. Those, however, turned definitively to abstemiously acting clothing and they retained the link to the past on the representative costumes, for example in Hungary to Hungarian clothing which was born already in 16th century. They manifested nostalgia for the past also at numerous masquerades where were varied in diverse historical figures.

This tilt to the past manifesting itself also in style of dressing of the 19th century acts in link to being born civic society up to paradoxically. However, the townspeople which become bearer of modern political and social changes help each other to build self-confidence also thanks to imitation of nobility life style. Thereto the clothing helps to it most distinctively. The clothes imitate monumental and expensive clothing styles of the past. The historisms represent for aristocracy a nostalgia for monarchist regimes of which certainty has been disrupted already in 19th century.

Binding etiquette

The etiquette in clothing started to complicate from the first half of the 19th century. In the course of the day the woman chose prudently the gown according to fact where and how she was about to spend the time. For horse riding it was necessary to have special riding costume; in summer cotton light dress; for walking on the city promenade elegant formal walking dress which demonstrated status of farther or husband; for travelling nonstriking complete; for stay in country as well on Riviera or in spa a more representative clothing. Clothes intended for festive events being held during the day required other cut and other accessories than solemn evening clothes. Basic difference between daily and evening types of dresses has been therein that evening dress used to be distinctively low-necked often without sleeves and of course, of more expensive textiles; the only acceptable material was silk and they used to be completed by jewels. However, daily festive clothes were always worn with long sleeve without décolletage and they had to be manufactured also of cotton. Less formal daily clothes could (should) be manufactured already from other materials, e.g. riding clothing, travelling winter clothes of wool, summer clothing to the sea and into spa made of cotton or linen; also mixture fabrics were admissible – wool or cotton with silk. For daily dress large dimension collars reminding small pelerines were worn. Their function was unambiguous – they chastely covered up the neck line. For this purpose also dickies served which the women inserted into the décolletages. The using of gloves was natural and it was required not only into the exterior but also to some formal gowns. In spite of this that the custom to hold out hands to somebody “will break out” fully only in the second half of the 20th century the people of higher social classes (also men) still protected themselves their hands.

The ability to be well-dressed did not mean to get dressed aesthetically or luxuriously but duly according to social event or part of the day. Social and aesthetical adequacy of the dress was already solved also by means of clothing accessories. Less wealthy women had not financial means for more types of daily and evening gowns they adapted themselves the dresses for concrete event by accessories. Trifles have delivered to the gown the right style: for example to walking gown they took always parasol and hat. Protection against sun rays has been inevitable because only pale porcelain complexion was considered for noble and beautiful one for the entire 19th century. The working class had faces marked by sun. Some parasols did have a small roof made of impregnated textile thus they could serve to the female owner also like a protection against lighter rains.

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Clothing in Slovakia influenced by rococo good taste (forties up to nineties of 18th century)

Faraway from fashion centre. French fashion at the Hapsburgs court and in manor houses in Slovakia

At the beginning of the 18th century it comes to gradual alteration of good taste at the European monarchical courts. France plays first fiddle which became a pattern of life style for the whole European aristocracy during the reign of Luis the XIV. The France became the greatest producer of quality silk fabrics that began to vary patterns under influence of Orientalisms especially chinoiserie. Dominance of laces and ribbons persisted on menswear also womenswear. Change in clothing happened not only by means of fabrics but also of new silhouette. This acquired a monumental character in spite of such thing that in woman´s wardrobe a chart of subtitle waist and voluminous skirt persisted and the clothing started to be sewn by other cuts. The skirt delivered robustness to the whole silhouette under which a wicker construction, an underskirt was dressed: in period terminology a panier (Fr.), there is a notion of Reifrock (Germ.) (fig. 1) in archival resources from territory in Slovakia.  Women acted like if they have been set on voluminous pedestal. Around 1745 it comes to further change which has caused other form of skirt: it began to be formed distinctively into hips; in extreme case this ellipse had, in ground plan, a diameter up to two metres. Overexposed horizontal silhouette acted very stylish and strikingly. Theatricality of this clothing has been multiplied also by a liking in using of grey wigs, in the first place in small hairdos; after 1745 in high hairstyles. Special aesthetical standard, which had laid the grey-haired wigs on the peak of period elegancy, was valid also for men.

New changes have been followed also by high Hungarian aristocracy holding high authorities at the Hapsburgs court. But they were pattern also for pettier Hungarian nobility inhabiting territory of Slovakia, especially for woman. In spite of this that Hungarian clothing was constantly a favourite type of clothing new French trends became a standard for life style of nobility.

Change in taste came slowly onto Vienna court. Mária Terézia alone began to wear a new arrangement of her head after wedding with František Štefan Lotrinský but she was not tempted by a new design of dress. Period portraits show that robe à la française, the most typical rococo robe, was worn only by her daughters. This one was called Franzözischer Sack (Fig.  2).  Fashion in Vienna at court during the reign of Mária Terézia and Joseph II has not even reached such unprecedented vagaries like at French royal court. The Hapsburgs, though they worn expensive and luxury dresses, they avoided extravagance. Daughter of Mária Terézia, Mária Antoinetta could not afford such fashion mischievousness at emperor´s court in Vienna as there in Versailles.

Wives of Hungarian noblemen took pleasure not only in this type of dress and in white wigs but also in new type of textile jewels which they worn as necklaces and plenty of cuffs (Fr. engageantes). Sleeves of lady´s dresses were distinctively shortened up to elbows and they have been overlapped just by these well-marked lace cuffs. They dressed them even to the Hungarian clothing which remained unchanged in its composition from Renaissance. Its silhouette has been adapted by them also according to the period one and such way that they gave themselves also the voluminous underskirt into hips under skirt (Fig. 3).

Coat, waistcoat and trousers á la française were worn in men´s wardrobe of Hungarian noblemen. The trousers were narrowed from the thirties; the coat had less voluminous tails in back side in direction from waist; sleeves were narrowed and the cuff was shortened (Fig. 4). The waistcoat and the coat were sewed of silky fabrics patterned by new modern patterns sometimes they were completed also by embroidery with gold and silver threads or they were decorated by distinctive “pramar´s” lacings. Their expensiveness has been completed yet by distinctive buttons on the waistcoat, coat, cuffs also pockets. Rich laced jabot (ruffles) and cuffs completed the men´s robe. A big three-cornered hat was constantly worn. Coloured or white knitwear knee socks have been completed by small light shoes on heels or by high boots for horse riding. This type of clothing has been enlarged at the court where it was worn also by Hungarian noblemen. They preferred constantly the Hungarian clothing for current life in their residences in Slovakia. In portrait creation we can see that the Hungarian aristocrats and noblemen had themselves in both types of clothing portrayed (Fig. 5).

They were inspired by Hungarian clothing not only at Vienna Hapsburg´s court in regulations for hussar´s and “honvéd´s” uniforms, thus in many cases we saw on the portraits of soldiers in uniforms reminding the Hungarian clothing. Especially they remind it by decorative buttoning as on decorative waistcoats, by bordering with fur, by embroidery on front also back side of trousers, also on hips of calves, by fur cap but also by arranged way of wearing of decorative waistcoat thrown-over shoulders (Fig. 6).

The Hungarian clothing ceases to have such political pathos in the 2nd half of the 18th century than in previous century. It is connected also with such fact that many Hungarian magnates got accustomed to the Hapsburgs at the Hungarian court; many of them have been directly engaged in various authorities. The Hungarian clothing acquires a character of ceremonial clothes for extraordinary occasions. It is put-on even by aristocrats from Hapsburg´s house as coronation solemn costume. Mária Terézia alone accepted on her head the Hungarian crown in this type of clothing in 1741 in St. Martin´s Cathedral.

Townspeople in German and Hungarian ways

Inhabitants living in towns got dressed particularly according to ethnic affiliation either in German way or in Hungarian one. The marking is period designation according to archival records for example of tailor´s guilds. It was bound to man´s clothing but also to woman´s one in towns. The townspeople of Slovak origin chose from these two possibilities. Difference between townswomen and noblewomen has been unambiguous because townswomen could not wear long skirts so the skirts reached to them ankle-deep. They did not wear dresses but multi-part completes for example skirt with jacket or skirt with shirt and bodice. They worn also constantly apron with liking (fig. 7).

In caste aristocratic regime each inhabitant knew which class he came from and until they have been raised to a noble rank they got not dressed like noblemen. The eighteenth century was the last period when lordship´s ordinances were given determining what cannot be worn by townspeople. The clothing of townsmen had to be manufactured of simpler and cheaper textile materials; the silk belonged only to nobility they could not wear gold and silver and some kinds of furs. Just the material usage was causing that townsman´s clothing acted more simply and abstemiously although it has been from equal or similar cuts as the nobleman´s one (fig. 8).

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Clothing in Slovakia under influence of baroque (twenties of 17th century up to twenties of 18th century)

In 17th century inhabitants of Slovakia survived much exerted times which brought about uprisings of estates of Hungarian nobility, its resistance against absolutistic regime, against violent Counter-Reformation from side of the Catholic Church and against continuing conflict between Hapsburg and Turkish empires.

Clothing as symbol of political and confessional membership

From the twenties of 17th century in period of thirty-year war in Europe new type of clothing begins to assert itself gradually. However, the people remained reserved to this new wave in Hungary. Elements, which they took over into their Hungarian clothes from the new baroque fashion, did not alter their way of clothing but they innovated it moderately only, particularly through details. Hairdos, length of women´s sleeves or form of neckline bit by bit modified constantly persisting Renaissance fashion. Onto the territory of Hungary they are used to get also thanks to wedding policy of Hungarian magnate´s families. Brides coming from foreign noble families brought with themselves also new trends often in spirit of topical fashion (fig. 1, 2). It was still valid Hungarian magnates loyal towards Hapsburgs got dressed according to to their pattern thus according to the last fashion in Europe. Hungarian family lines who profited politically also socially from this propensity as Esterházy and Pálfy took over West fashion among the first ones.

The Hungarian clothing, however, still persisted whole 17th century as the most favourite type of clothing between Hungarian nobility and also townspeople. It was not varied in its composition but men started gradually to wear shorter “mentieka” (short fur-lined coat) also dolman. Ladies adapted moderately particularly cut of bodice, hairdos and its accessories according to the fashion. Fabrics being used for sewing the gentlemen´s and lady´s Hungarian clothing were varied also according to fashion changes, especially the patterns (fig. 4).

Portrait creation brings documents about enlargement of early baroque fashion in noble wardrobe in Hungary. It started to wear at court from Ferdinand Hapsburg the III in Vienna and this new fashion became a standard between Austrian Hapsburgs and to them loyal noblemen acting at court. This early baroque clothing of the second quarter of the 17th century had still clothing components as Renaissance dress, however, it lost Renaissance rigidity. The women´s silhouette equally as the men´s one has been voluminous particularly thanks to wide sleeves and soft robust skirt. A broad boat-neckline with liking bordered by lace yet highlighted horizontal line. Hairstyle was also being finished into breadth, especially on cheeks around the face. Married women from aristocratic and noble environment dressing themselves according to this fashion already did not wear on their hairdos bonnets, nets, hats, berets but with pleasure went without hem (fig. 5). Pearls became most preferred component for jewel production. The men worn the coat wams extended under back, its sleeves gained volume also thanks to shirt which protruded through cutting-ins in them. Ruff has been replaced by white turn-down collar bordered by lace which was interlaced by the neck tie – a novelty in men´s clothing. It was a band of fabric; in this period it was yet invisible from under voluminous collar. Trousers were also extended knee-deep and knitted-fabric silk knee socks have fixed and distinctively decorated the lacy suspenders. Long hairs and soft felt hat with voluminous brim decorated with bird´s feathers came into fashion. Carefully treated beard and moustache so popular in Spanish Renaissance fashion were now in 17th century enlarged and they remained in fashion up to beginning of 18th century.

In taking-over of these new fashion trends German inhabitants of towns in Slovakia were more brave who took on them through Protestant countries of West Europe, partially through Germany and the Netherlands (fig. 6). 

This fashion style persisted till the eighties of 17th century when the type of dress of new cut according to preferring vertical silhouette started to be worn. This has been created at the court of Louis the XIV in Versailles at the end of the seventies of 17th century. This new type of arrangement got into environment of Hungarian nobility from Vienna court where Leopold Hapsburg the I and Charles Hapsburg the III have subjected to it. Not only magnates supporting the Hapsburgs but also family lines of foreign origin acting in Hungary such as for instance Hellenbachs have worn it (fig. 7).

This type became different from early baroque clothing thereby that it accented the vertical line in silhouette. The composition of men´s clothing was changed because the suit started to be worn in triple combination: coat (Fr. justaucorps), under it vest with sleeves or without (Fr. veste) them and trousers under knees (Fr. culotte). Silk knee socks reached towards knees where they have been fixed by decorative suspender laces and ribbons. The shirt was not visible only its voluminous cuffs and cravat with jabot (Fr.). The head has been decorated with voluminous extension wigs and distinctive three-corner hat (Fr. tricorn). Light shoes on heel were worn on foots with distinctive bow or with clip on instep. Such clothing acting very womanishly symbolized already not the men´s ideal:  a man as a fighter but a man as courtier which cared for his external appearance carefully and very precisely (fig. 8).

Lady´s counterpart acted more slimly thanks to the narrowing of skirt and transferring of its volume into the back part, thanks to deep décolleté discovering bosom, narrowing of sleeves, thanks to their moderate shortening under elbows and inserting the sleeves into bodice in natural shoulder armhole. Coverage of head protruding high upwards (Fr. à la fontange) and high heels hidden under skirt have enhanced the figure (fig. 9). Equally like in case of Hungarian magnates these foreign influences have been followed especially by women of families by power and politically kindred with Hapsburgs.

In the 17th century also a new technique of lace arose. Netted laces favourite in period of Renaissance were replaced by bobbin lacing technique. Bobbin laces are spread in Hungary not only by means of trade but particularly thanks to new groups of population who was settled on the territory of Slovakia. All these were the Dutch, German, Italian, Jew, Croatian inhabitants and just they were bringing knowledge of its production. Excepting bobbin laces the ribbons decorated baroque clothes. They became a new assortment because up to now they were manufactured like border tapes and decorations for clothing which were manually created by “pozamenters”. In the half of 17th century, however, weaving loom arose in France which could manufacture narrow ribbons in twill and satin weave or in plain one. Such ribbons have been unlike also string maker´s tapes more fine, light a more colourful. This enabled to make various cockades and rosettes from them.

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Renaissance clothing in Slovakia (end of 15th century up to twenties of 17th century)

New ideological flow spreading itself from Italian towns – humanism – influenced not only world view and artistic conceptions but also the way of looking-at on clothing also on its form. Adapted more to needs of the body, naturally resulting, free from overexposed long sleeves, high bonnets, pointed shoes (such popular in period of later Middle Ages) acted proportionally. Women´s clothing started to be cut a sewn for the first time in particular like upper part and lower one. Shirt was not already only lower part but it became visible and distinctively decorated clothing component part in décolletage and on sleeves. In the 16th century in Protestant Germany and Hapsburg Spain men´s trousers were born which have been already visible and they created together with shorter jacket the base of men´s clothes.

In period of Renaissance women´s aprons started to be worn with liking already not only as working clothing, however, richly decorated also as representative clothing component part. They became part not only of townsman´s clothing but also of noble one in Italy, in German countries, in Austria, Bohemia, Hungary also in Poland. In the 16th century the natural, proportional resulting silhouette of Italian Renaissance clothing is varied, it takes up in volume as both in women´s and in men´s clothing, especially in part of shoulders and sleeves. Upper part of body is again stylized and overexposed into massively acting horizontal silhouette.  

The whiff of new fashion came from Italy into Hungary mediately by means of commercial caravans bringing rather new kinds of fabrics from which were manufactured already in Italy also new types of clothing. Slovakia was significant centre of extraction of precious metals and business contacts with Italy were not concentrated only on business with precious metals but also on import of expensive textiles, clothes and accessories. Italy and Spain have been the only countries where in Europe luxurious silky fabrics were manufactured. Persian and Arabic weavers brought there their production already in 9th century. In Italy from beginning of the 14th century started to be manufactured except for lampases also velvets (Ital. Velluto,Slov., Pol. aksamienty) and  damasks with large-repeat patterns, which became rapidly the standards of luxury for rich classes in the entire Europe. In Italy the clothes sewn from them got already also a new cut, however this one was enlarged in Hungary only in the second half of 15th century. Their usage already in the 15th century not only written documents corroborate but also preserved artefacts (Italian silk textiles from the second half of the 15th century, fig. 1).

Mural and panel paintings coming from the territory of today´s Slovakia show that some clothing elements of late medieval fashion coexisted with already Renaissance clothing elements for example the figures are dressed in medieval types of overcoats sewn already from Renaissance velvets and with protruding shirt in a new way, as the case may be, with Renaissance berets on heads (fig. 2).

Fashion inspirations from royal courts

Clothes in the Italian way came to us earlier than during the reign of Matej Korvín but at Hungarian court the clothing was definitively changed only thanks to the wife of Matej Korvín who brought new habitudes from natal Italy. Beatrice Aragónska determined trends in Buda at Hungarian court and archival source materials also fine art monuments give out about her clothing wardrobe. We can see special variant of Italian Renaissance clothing in Central Europe thanks to portraits of Jagels and their Hapsburg wives. It was worn also at the Hungarian court in time of Vladislav Jagelovský the II and of his wife Maria Uhorská (Hapsburg).

On the example of both queens it is possible to demonstrate that the forms of Renaissance clothing were various, especially therefore, that the Renaissance clothing had its geographical and dynastic specifics. Moreover in various parts of Europe new clothing elements were accepted with varied degree of obligatoriness it means that somewhere only some elements of new fashion were adapted and they were adapted to tradition of that place. In Hungary they got dressed at the court in the Italian way first (fig. 3), later particularly under influence of Protestant movement in church the clothing typical for German and Central European areas started to be worn (fig. 4).

After accession of Hapsburgs on Hungarian throne a Spanish type of Renaissance clothing started to appear at the court which became widespread at the court alone in Spain only from the thirties of the 16th century in time of reigning of Karol the V, and namely in men´s variant in first place. Yet Ferdinand Habsburg the I who enthroned in 1526 has worn the Renaissance clothing in the Italian way. His oldest son, in addition to this also Hungarian king (crowned in Bratislava in 1563) Maximilián II worn as a young man already the Spanish Renaissance clothing. The Hapsburgs as a strong family line ruling over more European countries strengthened their political ambitions also by adherence of courtly customs among which also the way of clothing and equal fashion belonged. In Hungary the Hungarian nobility and aristocracy loyal towards the Hapsburgs on Hungarian throne have worn the Spanish clothing. This clothing was different from Italian Renaissance clothing and Protestant clothes. It differentiated from them by strict geometricising silhouette in which the people acted like beings closed in furniture. The men have worn buftan-like short trousers, which has been decorated by small pocket of phallic shape between legs (Fr. braquette). The coat was short, close-fitting with distinctively cut front part into spike (so-called goose bulge) and with pleated sleeves in armhole. It was highly closed up to the neck where white lace ruff protruded. They worn silk knee socks on the legs fixed by suspender small lace and light shoes on heel. Short haircut and carefully arranged trim of beard and tiny moustache differentiated them from the rest of countries. They used to have hardened conical hats and toques on the head.

Women have worn three kinds of dresses: with distinctive false sleeves which hanged from armhole of lower sleeves and bodice has been sewn-together with skirt (fig. 5) Dress without distinctive sleeves was further type and a “ropa” on them(in Hungary known under the name of junker”).The ”ropa” has been free type of upper clothes, upper dress – overcoat. It could be without sleeves or with short sleeves or long ones which has been in upper part in balloon-like way pleated (fig. 6). Last type of lady´s gown consisted of two dresses – under dress and the upper one. The upper dress could be without sleeves or with short sleeves or false ones and unlike to “ropa” it encircled the figure (fig. 7). All these described women´s garments represented richness already only thereby that two dresses were worn on themselves. On the women´s dresses the bodice has been distinctively cut-out into spike (goose bulge as at men). The figure acted torpidly the dress has hidden all woman´s curves. Metal corset was used for forming of the body or metal whalebones were inserted into the bodice and the skirt has been formed by ring skirt vertugado (in Slovakia called as vertigált). White lace ruff and cuffs became distinctive accessories. Massiveness and geometricity of the dress have been supported also by luxurious patterned fabrics additionally decorated on dresses by sewing-on of pearls, brooches and other jewel appliqués which could be also several tens on one gown. Spanish Hapsburgs created the clothing which aroused not only respect but also astonishment (fig. 8). Also so-called Trachtenbuchy (from Germ.) – i.e. books of traditional costumes and Musterbuchy (from Germ.) – sample books with embroideries and laces thanks to which new textile techniques were spread along the entire Europe for example netting (laces and embroideries on the net), new techniques of embroidery (cross stitch, decorative stitches) but also patterns, their motifs, composition, ornaments. The cosmopolitan propagation of this news has been secured also by guilds. In them it was required to travel (wanderings) along more places of Europe and to collect experience. Thanks to the guilds – for example guild of tailors, experts in embroidery, of bag producers, dyers, weavers and of other workers – new trends in clothing were brought into towns and small towns on the territory of Slovakia and they started to be also produced in environment of this place. Despite this these luxurious textiles – particularly silk fabrics and knitwear presented goods which were not produced in Hungary and they were got here only by means of trade. Also some kinds of clothing accessories have been the most qualitative ones from import (embroidered gloves, silk knee socks, fans).

Fashion from Orient at courts of Hungarian magnates

Inspiration from Orient in European clothing and textile production persists from the Early Middle Ages. In period of Renaissance the trends especially from Ottomans come who presented military and political threat for Hungary and Europe already from the battle on Kosovo field. Yet before 1526 when Hungarian troops suffered crushing defeat from Ottomans at Moháč the Hungarian (also Polish) army has been inspired by clothing of their opponents particularly for riding squads (hussars). They have put-away heavy plate armours and have put-on kaftans with textile bands and high boots. This type of clothing was gradually enlarged also out of battle sites. The Hungarian magnates survived a great part of their life on military expeditions and they adapted some Ottoman dresses as a more practical form of clothing meeting their life style more than fashionable forms of West clothes. Such clothing got denominations like Hungarian clothing and it was significant element of Hungarian aristocracy and nobility already in the second half of the 16th century. Usage of this type of clothing, which likened the Hungarians more to Turks than to Europeans (Germans, Frenchs, Italians), was connected also with political behaviour of Hungarian magnates who for the sake of preservation of their privileges of estates dodged between the loyalty to Turks and Hapsburgs.

Men´s clothing influenced by Ottoman dress consisted of upper coat: mentieka (topcoat with sleeves) or delia (topcoat without sleeves or with false sleeves). Under them the coat, dolman, was worn; sometimes yet one coat – kaftan was dressed under it (fig. 9 a, b). There was always a distinctive belt on the dolman: in this period there was especially a broad textile band of multicoloured fabrics it could be decorated with knitted cords. Linen white shirt has served as lower clothing. Canvas underpants were given on the legs and silk knitted trousers as the upper ones or they have been sewn from cloth. Whether high boots with heel or shorter boots also with heel were booted; both forms have been influenced by Turkish shoes. The dolmans and kaftans had stand-up collar, “mentiekas” (vests) and delias had wide turn-down collar and voluminous distinctive sleeves. They were fastened by spherical buttons, by loop and button in the Oriental way and they have been decorated with “pozamentier´s” lacings, cords, bands, tassels. Their cut, fastening and decorating have been inspired by Ottoman´s men´s wear. Equally also the way of wearing the clothes (delia and mentieka could be also thrown-over shoulder) was inspired so. In archival source materials they are mentioned as overcoats also fur coats and hazukas. The Hungarian started to shave and arranged their face as Turks they worn smooth-shaven heads with the narrow bands of hairs left on the head which they accustomed to plait in various way; on the face they are used to keep moustache sometimes also beard.

Conservative Hungarian noblewomen

Among some Hungarian noblewomen a custom to wear the clothing which had townsman´s character in Italy, France but also in Germany: shirt (camisole), bodice (small vest), skirt and apron. Therefore it has been of townsman´s character because the noblewomen got dressed always sleeves on camisole or bodice with sleeves and sleeveless bodices were clothing of townswomen. They have worn mentiekas or pelerines of various lengths as upper clothing. This custom can be explained thereby that wives and daughters of Hungarian magnates who were used to spend years on the battle-field against enemy during their absence stood for the role of husband; they have organized the economy, court, upbringing of children and this type of clothing presented a more practical variant for them, as for instance Spanish or German garment. Iconographical and written source materials substantiate the fact that the Hungarian noblewomen were choosing themselves only some components or accessories from West fashion. They had a basic composition of clothing and bodice with front corset from Italian Renaissance fashion; from the Spanish fashion and German one they were fond of shirts in neckline with closed ruff; from French fashion they had open type of fan-like ruff and from the Spanish fashion they adopted the ring skirt “vertigált” and short topcoats with sleeves (bomezas), pelerines but also upper free overcoat dress known as ropa” in Spain (in Hungary it is junker). They took over decorative apron from the Italian and German fashions. We know according to archival source documents that they differentiated their clothing for everyday, festive and ceremonial occasions. Displays of some Hungarian noblewomen are most often just in the most ceremonial, representative form (fig. 10 a, b, c). The difference among them was not in composition of clothing but in materials used for their manufacturing, in quantity of decorating (embroideries, “pozaments”, laces) and in accessories. The Hungarian noblewomen immortalized on the representative portraits have the bodices decorated with pearl multiple-row cords; sometimes they are as bands dividing the skirt and bodice of dress. Married wives have bonnets on their heads and the girls have head-dresses, headbands, diadems. They decorated their hairdos with jewels according to the general fashion in Europe: with broaches, hairpins and curtains in the hairdos; they are known as “boglars” from archival materials. Veils for head are mentioned there too. The women worn complicated hairstyles formed by metal aids under richly adorned bonnets and scarves (analogies we are finding in folk clothing, in coiffure arrangement on the pad called also as grguľa, krkuľa and chomla”) on which were fixed the hairs, bundles of hairs and they were subsequently arranged into burs. The hairdos could be yet overlapped with small nets. At some Hungarian courts the ladies used to have also a coiffeuse within personal domestic servants. Ottoman influence is distinctive not only in men´s clothing in Hungary but also in materials for clothes and in techniques of decoration of textile. The Ottoman Empire produced very luxurious silk fabrics: lampases, atlases, taffetas, velvets, the most expensive and most desired fabrics have been with woven-in patterns with stylized vegetal motifs. Under influence of Ottoman hegemony also the embroidery tradition was enriched in Hungary. Exotic embroiderers worked at courts of Hungarian magnates and they embroidered clothing, bonnets, household textiles, horse tackles in the Turkey way and so on. The term Turkey embroidery persisted in embroidery tradition yet to the end of 19th century. The Turks brought also new techniques of processing and colouring of leather, its superficial decorating which made Hungarian shoes famous but also other artisan products of leather.

Fashion in towns

With spreading Protestant movement happened changes also in the way of clothing. Towns particularly with German population in Spiš, Gemer, in mining towns of Central Slovakia but also in towns of East Slovakia: Prešov, Bardejov as well in Bratislava have been environment of spreading the new idea trends. The way of clothing has been influenced by Protestant principles which incited the people (whether of noble origin or townish one) to abstemiousness and abstention. Especially dark colours and concealed women´s décolletages got into clothing canon and swathing of head and lower part of face persisted. Dark clothing with white shirt, ruff and cuffs became symbol of Protestants not only in Hungary for a long time. In towns of 16th and 17th centuries also tailors manufacturing the German and Hungarian dresses had their workshops. These two alternatives were the most enlarged ones in towns of Slovakia (fig. 11 a, b). The clothing of townspeople has been determined also by authorities ordinances which stated which materials cannot be worn by townspeople; at women they have forbidden also long skirts and trains.

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